The Antikythera mechanism, a sort of analogous computer working with a differential gear, and the astrolabe each show nice refinement in astronomical science. In music, the water organ, invented by Ctesibius and subsequently improved, constituted the earliest occasion of a keyboard instrument.
In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last main step earlier than the development of written language, though again this was not universally the case. Before iron smelting was developed the only iron was obtained from meteorites and is often identified by having nickel content. Meteoric iron was uncommon and useful, however was sometimes used to make instruments and different implements, corresponding to fish hooks.
Coal converted to coke fueled larger temperature blast furnaces and produced cast iron in a lot bigger quantities than before, permitting the creation of a spread of constructions similar to The Iron Bridge. Cheap coal meant that trade was now not constrained by water resources driving the mills, although it continued as a useful source of energy. An improved sailing ship, the (nau or carrack), enabled the Age of Exploration with the European colonization of the Americas, epitomized by Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis. They produced new maps and charts which enabled following mariners to explore further with higher confidence.
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Navigation was usually difficult, nevertheless, owing to the problem of longitude and the absence of accurate chronometers. European powers rediscovered the concept of the civil code, lost because the time of the Ancient Greeks.
A commonplace reference for the state of mechanical arts in the course of the Renaissance is given within the mining engineering treatise De re metallica , which additionally accommodates sections on geology, mining and chemistry. De re metallica was the usual chemistry reference for the subsequent one hundred eighty years.
Steam powered blast furnaces achieved higher temperatures, permitting the use of more lime in iron blast furnace feed. (Lime rich slag was not free-flowing at the previously used temperatures.) With a adequate lime ratio, sulfur from coal or coke gasoline reacts with the slag in order that the sulfur does not contaminate the iron. As a result, iron manufacturing rose significantly during the last decades of the 18th century.